erythropoietin - meaning and definition. What is erythropoietin
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What (who) is erythropoietin - definition

Epoetin; Dynepo; Erythropoetin; Hemopoietin; Erythropoietins; Novel erythropoiesis stimulating protein; NESP; Rh-EPO; ATC code B03XA01; ATCvet code QB03XA01; Recombinant EPO; Recombinant erythropoietin; R-EPO; EPO (doping); EPO (gene); Recombinant human erythropoietin; Haemopoietin; Draft:Erythropoietin; Haematopoietin

¦ noun Biochemistry a cytokine (type of protein) secreted in the kidneys that increases the rate of production of red blood cells in response to falling levels of oxygen in the tissues.
Erythropoietin receptor         
Receptors, erythropoietin; Epo-R; EPOR (gene)
The erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EPOR gene. EpoR is a 52kDa peptide with a single carbohydrate chain resulting in an approximately 56-57 kDa protein found on the surface of EPO responding cells.
Erythropoietin in neuroprotection         
Erythropoietin in neuroprotection is the use of the glycoprotein erythropoietin (Epo) for neuroprotection. Epo controls erythropoiesis, or red blood cell production.



Erythropoietin (; EPO), also known as erythropoetin, haematopoietin, or haemopoietin, is a glycoprotein cytokine secreted mainly by the kidneys in response to cellular hypoxia; it stimulates red blood cell production (erythropoiesis) in the bone marrow. Low levels of EPO (around 10 mU/mL) are constantly secreted in sufficient quantities to compensate for normal red blood cell turnover. Common causes of cellular hypoxia resulting in elevated levels of EPO (up to 10 000 mU/mL) include any anemia, and hypoxemia due to chronic lung disease.

Erythropoietin is produced by interstitial fibroblasts in the kidney in close association with the peritubular capillary and proximal convoluted tubule. It is also produced in perisinusoidal cells in the liver. Liver production predominates in the fetal and perinatal period; renal production predominates in adulthood. It is homologous with thrombopoietin.

Exogenous erythropoietin, recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO), is produced by recombinant DNA technology in cell culture and are collectively called erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA): two examples are epoetin alfa and epoetin beta. ESAs are used in the treatment of anemia in chronic kidney disease, anemia in myelodysplasia, and in anemia from cancer chemotherapy. Risks of therapy include death, myocardial infarction, stroke, venous thromboembolism, and tumor recurrence. Risk increases when EPO treatment raises hemoglobin levels over 11 g/dL to 12 g/dL: this is to be avoided.

rhEPO has been used illicitly as a performance-enhancing drug. It can often be detected in blood, due to slight differences from the endogenous protein; for example, in features of posttranslational modification.

Examples of use of erythropoietin
1. The two other brand names are Epogen and Aranesp, a modified form of erythropoietin.
2. US media reported the blood–boosting drug erythropoietin (EPO) had been found in Jones‘s urine sample.
3. What is the difference between training at altitude and taking erythropoietin to achieve a similar effect?
4. Jones‘s initial sample had tested positive for erythropoietin at the U.S. championships in Indianapolis in June.
5. Amgen makes all the erythropoietin drugs sold in the United States.