James Abram Garfield - translation to french
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James Abram Garfield - translation to french

PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES IN 1881
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  • Garfield–Arthur election poster
  • [[Baltimore & Potomac Railroad]] Passenger Terminal in Washington, where Garfield was shot July 2, 1881
  • 1880 electoral vote results
  • Electoral Commission]] that decided the disputed 1876 presidential election. Painting by [[Cornelia Adele Strong Fassett]].
  • Line engraving of Garfield, produced around 1902 by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing as part of a presentation album of the first 26 presidents
  • Garfield at age 16
  • Capitol Rotunda]]
  • Garfield Monument]], by the Capitol, where he served almost twenty years
  • Garfield's proof of the Pythagorean theorem features a right triangle within a trapezoid.
  • Garfield, shot by [[Charles J. Guiteau]], collapses as Secretary of State Blaine gestures for help. Engraving from ''[[Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper]]''.
  • General [[William S. Rosecrans]]
  • Garfield as a brigadier general during the Civil War
  • Official White House portrait of James Garfield, 1881
  • Editorial cartoon: [[Uncle Sam]] directs U.S. Senators and Representatives implicated in the Crédit Mobilier scheme to commit [[Hara-Kiri]].
  • R.B. Hayes]]". Hayes, his predecessor in the presidency, is seen in the background dressed like a woman and holding a bag marked "R.B. Hayes' Savings, [[Fremont, Ohio]]".
  • [[Lucretia Garfield]] in the 1870s
  • [[Salmon P. Chase]] was Garfield's ally until Andrew Johnson's impeachment trial.
  • Middle Creek battlefield. Garfield commanded from the distant hill in the center of the photo.
  • Replica of the [[log cabin]] in [[Moreland Hills, Ohio]], where Garfield was born
  • President Garfield in reviewing stand, viewing inauguration ceremonies, on March 4, 1881
  • ''Puck'' magazine]] satirized [[Robert E. Lee]]'s surrender to him at Appomattox by depicting Grant giving up his sword to Garfield.
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  • The greenback despised by Garfield
  • '''President U.S. Grant'''<br>[[Mathew Brady]] ''1870''

James Abram Garfield      
James Abram Garfield (1831-81), 20th president of the United States (1881)
Garfield         
Garfield, male first name; James Abram Garfield (1831-81), 20th president of the United States (1881); name of a cat from a comic strip by Jim Davis

Definition

Jam.
¦ abbreviation
1. Jamaica.
2. James (in biblical references).

Wikipedia

James A. Garfield

James Abram Garfield (November 19, 1831 – September 19, 1881) was the 20th president of the United States, serving from March 4, 1881, until his death six months later—two months after he was shot by assassin Charles J. Guiteau. A lawyer and Civil War general, Garfield served nine terms in the United States House of Representatives and is, to date, the only sitting member of the House to be elected president. Before his candidacy for the White House, he had been elected to the U.S. Senate by the Ohio General Assembly—a position he declined when he became president-elect.

Garfield was born into poverty in a log cabin and grew up in northeastern Ohio. After graduating from Williams College, he studied law and became an attorney. He was active in the Stone-Campbell Movement denomination. Garfield was elected as a Republican member of the Ohio State Senate in 1859, serving until 1861. He opposed Confederate secession, was a major general in the Union Army during the American Civil War, and fought in the battles of Middle Creek, Shiloh, and Chickamauga. Garfield was elected to Congress in 1862 to represent Ohio's 19th district. Throughout his congressional service, he firmly supported the gold standard and gained a reputation as a skilled orator. He initially agreed with Radical Republican views on Reconstruction but later favored a Moderate Republican-aligned approach to civil rights enforcement for freedmen. Garfield's aptitude for mathematics extended to a notable proof of the Pythagorean theorem, which he published in 1876.

At the 1880 Republican National Convention, delegates chose Garfield, who had not sought the White House, as a compromise presidential nominee on the 36th ballot. In the 1880 presidential election, he conducted a low-key front porch campaign and narrowly defeated the Democratic nominee, Winfield Scott Hancock. Garfield's accomplishments as president included his resurgence of presidential authority against senatorial courtesy in executive appointments, a purge of corruption in the Post Office, and his appointment of a Supreme Court justice. He advocated for agricultural technology, an educated electorate, and civil rights for African Americans. He also proposed substantial civil service reforms, which were passed by Congress in 1883 as the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act and signed into law by his successor, Chester A. Arthur.

Garfield was a member of the intraparty "Half-Breed" faction who used the powers of the presidency to defy the powerful "Stalwart" New York senator Roscoe Conkling. He did this by appointing Blaine faction leader William H. Robertson to the lucrative post of Collector of the Port of New York. A fracas ensued that resulted in Robertson's confirmation and the resignations of Conkling and Thomas C. Platt from the Senate.

On July 2, 1881, Charles J. Guiteau, a disappointed and delusional office seeker, shot Garfield at the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad Station in Washington. The wound was not immediately fatal, but managed to kill Garfield on September 19, 1881, due to infection caused by his doctors' unsanitary methods.